Industrialization , Darwin 's theory of evolution and Marx's theory of class divisions shaped these works and turned historical processes into a subject of wide debate.
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James Joyce 's Ulysses had a major influence on modern novelists, in the way that it replaced the 18th- and 19th-century narrator with a text that attempted to record inner thoughts, or a " stream of consciousness ". This term was first used by William James in and, along with the related term interior monologue , is used by modernists like Dorothy Richardson , Marcel Proust , Virginia Woolf , and William Faulkner. On the other hand, Robert Coover is an example of those authors who, in the s, fragmented their stories and challenged time and sequentiality as fundamental structural concepts.
The 20th century novels deals with a wide range of subject matter. The Jazz Age is explored by American F. The rise of totalitarian states is the subject of British writer George Orwell. Novelist have also been interested in the subject of racial and gender identity in recent decades.
Louis has described Chuck Palahniuk 's Fight Club as "a closeted feminist critique". Furthermore, the major political and military confrontations of the 20th and 21st centuries have also influenced novelists. The subsequent Cold War influenced popular spy novels. Another major 20th-century social events, the so-called sexual revolution is reflected in the modern novel.
Lawrence 's Lady Chatterley's Lover had to be published in Italy in ; British censorship lifted its ban as late as In the second half of the 20th century, Postmodern authors subverted serious debate with playfulness, claiming that art could never be original, that it always plays with existing materials. A postmodernist re-reads popular literature as an essential cultural production. See also: Thriller , Westerns and Speculative fiction. While the reader of so-called serious literature will follow public discussions of novels, popular fiction production employs more direct and short-term marketing strategies by openly declarating of the work's genre.
Popular novels are based entirely on the expectations for the particular genre, and this includes the creation of a series of novels with an identifiable brand name. Popular literature holds a larger market share. Genre literature might be seen as the successor of the early modern chapbook. Both fields share a focus on readers who are in search of accessible reading satisfaction. The modern adventure novel goes back to Daniel Defoe 's Robinson Crusoe and its immediate successors. Modern pornography has no precedent in the chapbook market but originates in libertine and hedonistic belles lettres, of works like John Cleland 's Fanny Hill and similar eighteenth century novels.
Ian Fleming 's James Bond is a descendant of the anonymous yet extremely sophisticated and stylish narrator who mixed his love affairs with his political missions in La Guerre d'Espagne Marion Zimmer Bradley 's The Mists of Avalon is influenced by Tolkien , as well as Arthurian literature , including its nineteenth century successors. Modern horror fiction also has no precedent on the market of chapbooks but goes back to the elitist market of early nineteenth century Romantic literature.
Modern popular science fiction has an even shorter history, from the s. The authors of popular fiction tend to advertise that they have exploited a controversial topic and this is a major difference between them and so-called elitist literature. Dan Brown , for example, discusses, on his website, the question whether his Da Vinci Code is an anti-Christian novel.
However, the boundaries between popular and serious literature have blurred in recent years, with postmodernism and poststructuralism , as well as by adaptation of popular literary classics by the film and television industries. Crime became a major subject of 20th and 21st century genre novelists and crime fiction reflects the realities of modern industrialized societies. Crime is both a personal and public subject: criminals each have their personal motivations; detectives, see their moral codes challenged. Patricia Highsmith 's thrillers became a medium of new psychological explorations.
Paul Auster 's New York Trilogy — is an example of experimental postmodernist literature based on this genre. Fantasy is another major area of commercial fiction, and a major example is J. Tolkien in fact revived the tradition of European epic literature in the tradition of Beowulf , the North Germanic Edda and the Arthurian Cycles.
Science fiction , is another important type of genre fiction and it has developed in a variety of ways, ranging from the early, technological adventure Jules Verne had made fashionable in the s, to Aldous Huxley 's Brave New World about Western consumerism and technology. Clarke produced modern classics which focus on the interaction between humans and machines.
The surreal novels of Philip K Dick such as The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch explore the nature of reality, reflecting the widespread recreational experimentation with drugs and cold-war paranoia of the 60's and 70's. Writers such as Ursula le Guin and Margaret Atwood explore feminist and broader social issues in their works.go
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William Gibson , author of the cult classic Neuromancer , is one of a new wave of authors who explore post-apocalyptic fantasies and virtual reality. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Narrative text, normally of a substantial length and in the form of prose describing a fictional and sequential story. For other uses, see Novel disambiguation. Not to be confused with Novell. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs additional citations for verification. See also: Ancient Greek novel and Byzantine novel. Main article: Chivalric romance. Main article: Novella. Main article: Chapbook. Main articles: Heroic romances and 17th-century French literature. See also: Picaresque novel. Main article: Augustan prose.
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Main article: Philosophical fiction. Main article: Sentimental novel. Main article: Romanticism. See also: Newgate novel. Main articles: French literature of the 19th century and Victorian literature. See also: Sensation novel. See also: Modernism , Postmodernism , Antinovel , and Nouveau roman.
Main article: Genre fiction. Novels portal. Susan Maning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, , p. Romance should not be confused with Harlequin Romance. Susan Maning, pp. Retrieved 25 April Kathleen Kuiper, ed. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Mass. A historico-philosophical essay on the forms of great epic literature [first German edition ], transl.
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Reischauer, Edwin O. Belknap Press. Cambridge, MA Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, , p. Bray, Schmeling, and Tim Whitmarsh hrsg. Oxford University Press, Lewis , The Discarded Image , p. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 19 April The Great Reclothing of Rural England. London: Hambledon Press. Proceedings of the Scottish Society of Antiquarians Zur Literaturgeschichte des einfachen Lesers. Poetik, Funktion und Rezeption einer niederen Gattung im Frankreich des Pearl Buck and the Chinese Novel , p.
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College English. Morphew, , would thus include the story of "Lucian's Ass", vol. Caldecott, , pp. Bots, P. Hoftijzer eds. Petronius Arbiter [ Morphew, ; The Works of Lucian, , 2 vols. London: S. Morphew, See The Adventures of Theagenes and Chariclia [ London: W. Leipzig: J. Weidmann, Davies Group, Publishers, Marion Wynne Davis. New York: Prentice Hall, , p. Marion Wynne Davis, p. New York: Norton, , pp.
Eigner, George John Worth ed. Benson, "Charles Dickens". The North American Review , Vol. Studies in English Literature , —, Vol. London: Vintage, Cuddon, 4th ed. Preston , p. Harmon and Holman , p. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Email or Customer ID.
Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Yet it is extremely short. Are there surviving ancient discussions of epic? Koster ; compare Thraede attempts to reconstruct some. The most influential was by Aristotle. Aristotle, in Poetics chapters 23 and 24, specifies some of the characteristics which an epic ought to show. Here are some I am following Halliwell f. An unknown error has occurred.
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