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Three-quarters of all land on Earth is now significantly affected by human activities.

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Humanity has wiped out 60% of animal populations since 1970, report finds

Killing for food is the next biggest cause — mammal species are being eaten into extinction — while the oceans are massively overfished, with more than half now being industrially fished. African elephants : With 55 being poached for ivory every day, more are being poached than are being born, meaning populations are plunging. Orangutans : More than , were lost in Borneo alone between and , largely due to forest destruction for timber and palm oil, leaving the great apes critically endangered. Whale sharks : Numbers of the largest fish have collapsed by two thirds in the last 75 years in the Indian and-Pacific Oceans, due to overfishing and ship collisions.

Wandering albatross : Populations are declining rapidly, driven largely by accidental catches in long line fisheries. One monitored population on South Georgia fell by half between and Jaguar : The razing of forests in South America is driving the decline of this big cat, which prefers to live in dense jungle.


  1. West Indian manatee | U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
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Gharials : There are now just breeding adults of the fish-eating crocodile in the wild in India and Nepal, the result of rampant fishing, poaching and drops in river flow. Chinese giant salamander : This creature is one of critically endangered amphibians, decimated by hunting for food, destruction of rivers and lakes and pollution. It does not impact private actions or necessarily restrict further development.

Unlike the listing process, agencies must take economic considerations into account when designating critical habitat. As environmental law continues to evolve, trading of habitat is being used to reduce economic burden and find greater efficiency. See, for example, Michael Bean et al.

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Recovery plans must be adopted and implemented for all listed species, unless there is a finding that a plan will not benefit the species. Recovery plans are drafted by teams comprised of citizens, government representatives, and members of the scientific and academic community and may apply to more than one species. The recovery plans should :. These criteria act as guidelines, not specific requirements, and agencies have significant freedom in determining if and when recovery plans are created.

The plans should take economic and social impacts into account. Recovery plans do not have the force of law, and courts generally decline to enforce the plans. Before engaging in any activity that may have direct or indirect effects on listed species or critical habitat, federal agencies must consult with the NMFS or FWS to evaluate the potential impact of the proposed action.

In addition, for wildlife it is illegal to:. Congress has included certain limited exceptions to the prohibition against takings.

Sea Turtle | Species | WWF

A Safe Harbor Agreement also provides a route around the prohibition on taking. Under such an agreement, a landowner engages in activities that may restore, enhance, or maintain habitat for a listed species on private land. In exchange, the landowner receives guarantees that future land restrictions will be limited, and some incidental take may be allowed. Similar agreements known as Candidate Conservation Agreements and Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances are available for species that are candidates for listing, but as of yet have not been formally listed.

Penalties for violation of the ESA include civil and criminal penalties, injunctions, and loss of permits, licensees and federal leases. It is not necessary to show that an individual who killed an animal had knowledge that the species was endangered; all that is required is that the individual knew he or she was killing an animal.

Citizens may bring suit to enforce the ESA. The citizen suit provision gives private citizens the power to act as private attorneys general to sue in court for violations of the ESA. Citizens are authorized to commence a civil suit:.


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  • While the citizen suit provision is interpreted broadly, an individual or group wishing to bring a suit must still satisfy the standing requirement. Mar 30, 4 minute read. News Manatee reclassified from endangered to threatened as habitat improves and population expands - existing federal protections remain in place. Sep 15, 5 minute read. News Service releases access plans for Three Sisters Springs for the upcoming winter season. Jan 7, 5 minute read. News U. Fish and Wildlife Service to reclassify West Indian manatee from endangered to threatened.

    Nov 23, 1 minute read. News Service extends comment period for proposed management changes at Three Sisters Springs. Nov 10, 4 minute read. News Service offers refined alternative for access to Three Sisters Springs. Oct 14, 2 minute read. News Three Sisters Springs management strategy to remain in place until draft environmental assessment is finalized. Aug 5, 5 minute read.

    6.Wildlife Protection

    May 20, 3 minute read. News Manatee enforcement effort slated for Brevard County. Feb 26, 4 minute read. News Service to enact additional manatee protection measures at Three Sisters Springs. Feb 18, 4 minute read. Coast Guard plane to sister park in Orlando, Florida. Dec 15, 4 minute read. News Public invited to comment on proposed strategies to protect wintering manatees at Three Sisters Springs.

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    Jun 21, 7 minute read. News Service proposes broadened Florida manatee protections in Kings Bay. Apr 2, 3 minute read. News Habitual manatee zone violator sentenced for killing a manatee in Brevard County, Florida. Nov 5, 5 minute read. News Service broadens Florida manatee protections in Kings Bay. Jan 12, 3 minute read. News Federal finding means Florida manatee critical habitat designation warrants revision. Wildlife West Indian manatee.