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Please indicate your interest in being considered during the programme application process. Nominations are considered automatically, there is no need for students to apply. XJTLU students may apply to conduct a funded summer research project with expert research staff supervision. These prestigious fellowships are highly sought after as an excellent learning experience and resume builder for graduate programmes and employment. Visit the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships page for more information.

Up to 25 percent reduction of annual tuition fee and work placement may be available for all continuing students. These scholarships are open to all international students who wish to study postgraduate programmes at XJTLU. We offer a generous entry scholarship of up to 50 percent of the total programme tuition fee for all full-time masters programmes based on academic merit. Your indication of interest during the online programme application process and a scholarship application letter are required to be considered for an XJTLU masters scholarship.

Scholarships are available for full-time study only, and there are currently no scholarships available for part-time programmes. Suzhou Higher Education Town where XJTLU is located offers generous academic merit scholarships to international postgraduate students studying degree programmes. Scholarships will be awarded to up to five students from each country up to 12 students in total to the value of 30 percent of the total programme tuition fee. Applicants must be residents from Russia, Thailand or Indonesia and meet the minimum entry requirements.

Please indicate your interest in the programme application process and submit a scholarship application letter online. Successful candidates will be notified and receive 30 percent off their total tuition fee. The scholarship includes a full tuition fee waiver, free accommodation, additional free Chinese language classes and a modest living allowance to cover daily expenses. Please see the full eligibility criteria on the Study in Jiangsu website. XJTLU offers a range of scholarships to highly motivated and qualified candidates to pursue research leading to a PhD degree. Successful applicants may receive financial support including:.

Students who are awarded an XJTLU PhD scholarship are normally required to undertake a Teaching Assistant or Research Assistant — hours in one academic year role during the scholarship funded period, which is an excellent opportunity to develop academic and research skills. You can apply for an existing PhD project which has received funds from the University or external funding bodies. These projects have an established research topic and a formed supervisory team. You can check the individual PhD programme for information about specific projects available or contact potential supervisors to discuss funding opportunities.

There is no specific application deadline for each project, which will open until the position is filled. The application procedure can be found here. Additional scholarships are available to candidates who wish to pursue research degree in the following areas:. Architecture: History, Theory and heritage, Computational design and fabrication, Urban ecologies.

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Our current system of admissions is difficult to justify. Public colleges and universities receive taxpayer support because they are supposed to benefit the public at large. Likewise, private, non-profit colleges and universities receive favorable tax treatment because they are supposed to serve the broader public interest. Given their charge of advancing the public interest, colleges and universities should strive for admissions systems that honor true academic merit and seek to identify those students who have the best scholastic records, are otherwise most deserving, and most likely to contribute to society.

Admission based on true merit rather than an incidental status for which they have no responsibility or which has nothing to do with their academic abilities would consider traditional indicators of excellence such as grades, test scores, and leadership skills and, in projecting future contributions to society, would also consider the obstacles that students have overcome. However, we believe the pendulum has swung too far.

At base, colleges and universities are academic institutions, not social clubs. To address the problem that students with severe financial need are being overlooked by the existing admissions process, selective colleges should institute a preference for students who are low-income. There are three reasons that this remedy should be adopted. Second, it offsets the myriad of preferences and processes outlined in this report that have the cumulative effect of unfairly handicapping such students. Third, it provides a viable alternative strategy to promote racial diversity on campus, particularly if the Supreme Court precludes or limits race-conscious affirmative action in the currently pending Fisher II Case.

A handful of institutions have already instituted policies that de facto or de jure constitute a poverty or low-income preference. In the ten states where racial affirmative action programs have been banned at public universities by voter referendum, executive order, or legislature action , a number of innovative strategies have been adopted to open up opportunities for economically disadvantaged students including:.

Public flagship universities in Texas, California, and Georgia have dropped legacy preferences entirely. At the University of Georgia, for example, administrators decided to eliminate the use of the legacy preference, because it disproportionately benefits White and wealthy students. To overcome the burdens of poverty and nonetheless perform at a high level is itself an indicator of ability and perseverance; true merit, properly understood, recognizes both scholastic achievement and the importance of the distance traveled from a low income high school to an elite college or university.

Some institutions apply these new processes across their entire applicant pool; others have designated a set percentage of enrollment slots to be filled using this alternative method. To date, eight states have instituted new admissions preferences for low-income and working-class students of all races. The program roughly tripled the proportion of law students who were the first in their family to attend college, and African American applicants were Indeed, new research released this past November suggests that simply providing admissions officers with this additional data increases the rate of admission of low-income students.

The third strategy is so-called percentage plans , where state flagship universities offer admissions to the top students in each school or district. In Texas, California, and Florida, officials have created policies to admit students who graduated at the top of their high school classes. The Texan Top Ten Percent Plan , enacted by the state legislation, initially provided automatic admissions to students in the top ten percent of every high school class, irrespective of SAT or ACT scores; the figure was subsequently reduced to seven percent because of space constraints percentage plan admits are capped at three-quarters of the freshman class.

The percentage plan also produced higher levels of SES diversity. The program has been supported both by liberal urban minority legislators and conservative rural lawmakers, as constituencies from both groups benefit. Research indicates that minority students admitted through the percentage plan have performed as well or better than White students admitted with slightly higher average test scores. Some institutions, rather than changing their admissions criteria, have sought to increase the representation of low-income students among the applicant pool.

Recognizing that under-matching contributes to the under-representation of low-income students, six states have invested in creating new partnerships with schools located in low-income or minority neighborhoods. These partnerships fund regional admissions centers, recruitment weekends targeting underrepresented regions and high schools, efforts to increase community college transfer applications, and K partnerships that offer college preparatory classes and high school courses offering college credit.


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In two states, programs have been created specifically to facilitate transfer from community colleges to four-year universities to promote economic and racial diversity. Because low-income and minority students disproportionately enroll at two-year colleges, recruiting top community college students can be an important source of SES and racial diversity for four-year institutions. UC recognized the high quality of these candidates and, over time, agreed to increase community college transfer enrollment by 50 percent.

By , more than one quarter of new students enrolling on UC campuses were community college transfers. The Cooke Foundation has been particularly involved in expanding access of community college students to four-year institutions. CCTI students were subsequently found to earn similar grades as the traditional entry students at these institutions. A number of these colleges and universities continued to admit substantial numbers of transfer students after the CCTI initiative was concluded.

Some states have directly taken on the issue of the financial burden of attaining a college education for students with limited means. To reduce the economic burden of attending college, eight states have expanded financial-aid budgets to target high-achieving, lowincome students. At approximately the same time that Nebraska voters eliminated racial preferences in , the University of Nebraska implemented College Bound Nebraska, an expanded financial aid program offering free tuition for all Nebraska residents who are Pell grant recipients, maintain a full course-load, and have a GPA of 2.

The former President of the University of Nebraska, J. Incorporating recognition of the determination and resolve to overcome the burdens of growing up in a low-income family will not result in a dilution of academic standards and admission of students who cannot do the work. Research and experience both suggest that there are many talented low-income students who can succeed at a high level at even the most selective colleges and universities. In simulations drawing on actual admissions data, researchers have found that eliminating current preferences for legacies, athletes, and minority students and instead giving a boost to socioeconomically disadvantaged students would actually produce a slight rise in graduation rates.

Under the existing race-conscious, legacy, and athletic preference system at examined selective institutions, ten percent of students admitted came from the bottom two SES quartiles, and 86 percent of students graduated. If such preferences were dropped and replaced with preferences for students from a low-SES background, selective institutions could increase the percent of students from the bottom two SES quartiles to 38 percent while increasing the overall institutional graduation rate to 90 percent. To further confirm that increasing admission of high-achieving, low-income students would not reduce selective college graduation rates, we used the U.

High-achieving, lower-income students—here defined as students who placed in the top academic quartile in 10th grade and came from families below the median income—who enrolled at a selective institution do well there, earning an average GPA over 3. We also found that high-achieving students in the bottom two income quartiles earn similar grades and graduate at the same rate as those from families in the top two income quartiles Figure Should the Supreme Court rule that race-conscious affirmative action is unconstitutional, institutions will need to look to other strategies to maintain racial and ethnic diversity on their campuses.

Recognizing the strength of high-achieving, low-income students in admissions can produce as much or more racial and ethnic diversity as current race-conscious affirmative action policies. The experience of the Cooke Foundation further bears out that selection of high-achieving, low-income students can produce ethnic and racial diversity while maintaining or actually improving academic selectivity. Cooke Scholarships are awarded based on academic merit, leadership, commitment to others, and financial need. Characteristics such as gender, race, and ethnicity are not considered in the selection process.

Yet the resulting pool of Cooke Scholars is diverse across these categories Figure We conclude the rhetoric is empty and that admissions policies have not kept pace with either increasing capacity of low-income students or their growing numbers. All the while, the value of attending a selective college or university is clear, including higher graduation rates, higher pay for the individual, and greater productivity for the country.

This makes the failure to secure admissions of so many deserving low-income students all the more disturbing.

Merit vs. Need

The underrepresentation of high-achieving, low-income students is in large part the result of admissions practices utilized by selective colleges and universities that—presumably inadvertently— advantage privileged, wealthy students. Specifically, college and university admissions preferences provide advantages to athletes, children of alumni, and mediocre but full-paying students. Institutions compound the problem by giving advantages to students who visit the campus which few low-income applicants can afford , apply early which low-income students who must weigh aid packages in making college selection decisions cannot do , take the SAT or ACT multiple times and submit only their best scores which is unavailable to low-income students who will be afforded a single fee waiver , and who do so after having been thoroughly coached which few low-income students can afford.

Finally, the increasing reliance of standardized test scores in compiling an Academic Index to screen applications—so as not to overwhelm admissions officers with otherwise having to read thousands of applications—may unfairly eliminate disproportionate numbers of low-income students on the basis of small score differences, which we know are not predictive of college performance or indicative of any differences in ability.

The situation is not helped by the relatively small number of low-income students who actually apply to the highly selective colleges. Many more low-income students are qualified to apply in light of their capacity, records of achievement, and perseverance than actually do. As we have seen, many low-income students do not apply out of fear they cannot afford college or because they do not know that they qualify for an application fee waiver or substantial financial aid. This lack of knowledge is compounded when high school counselors discourage low-income applicants from even considering selective schools.

The good news is that when high-achieving, low-income students are admitted to selective institutions despite the barriers that have been erected, they excel. We conclude that these young people have enormous potential, yet are bypassed in a system that honors legacy and wealth more than hard work and talent. For 14 years, the Cooke Foundation has supported hundreds of talented students, chosen without reference to gender, race, ethnicity, or citizenship—only intellectual ability and financial need.

Now, as the U. Supreme Court contemplates the future of affirmative action and low-income students have overtaken other students as the majority of K enrollment, the moment is ripe for colleges and universities to admit applicants on the basis of true merit at scale. Many public institutions, having abandoned race-conscious affirmative action, are already well on their way to providing a low-income preference in their application process.

They are providing a pathway for other selective higher education institutions that wish to offset the impact of poor high school college advising, unfair preferences, and inherent process advantages. Many of the strategies that have been tested in states that have abandoned race-conscious admissions are available to institutions in the rest of the country.

In particular, we believe that an approach that recognizes not only academic achievement but also the extraordinary accomplishment of low-income students who are competitive at a high level—without the plethora of supports that were provided to their wealthier peers—is much fairer because it recognizes their true merit. When high-achieving, low-income students are admitted to selective institutions despite the barriers that have been erected, they excel.

Yet relatively few are admitted. President Obama articulated the relationship between race and income in , shortly after declaring his candidacy for the presidency. I think that we should take into account white kids who have been disadvantaged and have grown up in poverty and shown themselves to have what it takes to succeed. I think what we can say is that in our society, race and class still intersect … and that we all have an interest in bringing as many people together to help build this country.

It is a system that fails to appreciate the significance of the distance traveled, and it constitutes an unjustified bias against poor and minority applicants— however inadvertent—masquerading as fairness. Samuel J. He was raised by his father, a high school graduate; his mother died when he was five years old. With the guidance of his educational adviser at the Cooke Foundation, Sam enrolled in his local public high school, simultaneously also taking online courses offered by Stanford University and Northwestern University.

Sam graduated high school in with a 4. He received the Cooke College Scholarship and enrolled at Northwestern University where he triple majored in philosophy, cognitive science, and film studies. The following year, with a Cooke graduate award, he enrolled at Yale University where he is currently pursuing his Ph.

Sam and her younger sister were accustomed to frequent moves. They lived in four different locations between middle and high schools. Her mom worked at a car dealership struggling to make ends meet. Sam was chosen as a Cooke Young Scholar in 7th grade. At the independent allgirls high school she attended in Memphis, Tennessee, Sam started a chapter of Project Teen Race to address issues of diversity and help others find self-acceptance. She led the track squad, interned at St.

In she enrolled at New York University with Cooke scholarship support , where she majored in applied psychology and minored in creative writing and global and urban education studies. While at NYU, Sam founded and directed a startup nonprofit that targets mental health in education and served as the editor and executive director of the NYU Online Publication of Undergraduate Studies. She graduated magna cum laude in spring with a 3. Not only was Sam accepted early into the Teach for America cohort, but she was also selected as one of 50 Equity Fellows. Melissa O. She set out with no family support of her own, and took a job earning minimum wage to support herself.

She became a mother at the age of Twelve years after dropping out of high school, at age 26, she enrolled at Umpqua Community College and fell in love with sociology. She graduated from community college with a 3. Throughout her three years at Reed, Melissa mentored freshmen from underrepresented backgrounds and founded a program to support non-traditional students while maintaining a 3.

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After graduating with her B. Her research spans the areas of identity, social mobility, and inequality, and her doctoral research is a comparative ethnographic project that juxtaposes the experiences of individuals entering homelessness for the first time with first generation college students entering elite institutions of higher education. In addition to this project, Melissa does research and policy work tied to the legal control and policing of marginalized groups and has recently published an article in the Annual Review of Law and Social Science on the topic.

She is actively engaged in education outreach with youth and adult homeless populations in the Chicago area. Larry L. Without knowledge or guidance of the American system of higher education, Larry enrolled in community college following his high school graduation.

Merit vs. Need

While at community college, Larry served as a student ambassador, helping freshmen students during orientation, recruiting students from low-income communities to enroll in community college, and lobbying state legislators to maintain funding for the community college. In addition, he was a staff writer for the student newspaper, a member of Phi Theta Kappa an international honor society for community college students , and a recipient of two scholarships. He became a member of the honors college and ultimately graduated with a 4.

Becoming a Cooke Undergraduate Transfer Scholar allowed him to transfer to the University of Pennsylvania where he collaborated with professors on research topics ranging from the college skills gap to technological displacement effects in retail and the rise of right-wing populism in Europe. Ultimately he graduated summa cum laude with a 3. Once complete, he will return to Princeton University to pursue a Ph. Will T. At the time of application to the Young Scholars Program, Will aspired to attend his local magnet school for science and technology but was unsure how to navigate the competitive admissions process in which less than 20 percent of applicants were admitted.

The following year, with the help of his Cooke educational adviser, Will submitted an application and was accepted. During his summers in high school, he attended a service learning program in Ethiopia, and a chemical engineering program at the University of Connecticut. Will credits these summer experiences with igniting his passion for using science to address social issues in developing countries.

Will graduated with a 4. There he majored in chemical engineering and minored in African studies, graduating in with a 3. The foundation now supports his graduate work at the University of California, Berkeley, as an environmental engineering Ph.

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Merit Aid and the Politics of Education (Studies in Higher Education)

I found myself able to do things I had always dreamed of but never thought possible, like taking private cello lessons, attending CTY to study math, logic, and cryptology, and traveling to Ethiopia through LearnServe. Every single one of these experiences played a fundamental role in shaping me into the person I am today.

Most significantly, my journey to Ethiopia was the spark that ignited my passion for water and sanitation in the developing world, which has become the primary focus of my studies.

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Because of my firsthand experiences with people, places, and issues in the developing world, I sought out technical prowess and a humanities perspective to ask questions about what development is and how to make it happen. Median freshman test scores at these colleges are generally between and on the SAT and 29 and above on the ACT. In addition, many of these colleges admit only a small percentage of those who apply—usually fewer than one third. These schools generally accept between on third and one half of their applicants.

These schools generally accept between one half and three quarters of their applicants. This category is a very broad one, covering colleges that generally have median freshman test scores between and on the SAT and between 21 and 23 on the ACT.


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The colleges in this category generally only require evidence of graduation from an accredited high school although they may also require completion of a certain number of high school units. Some require that entrance examinations be taken for placement purposes only, or only by graduates of unaccredited high schools or only by out-of-state students. Colleges are also rated Noncompetitive if they admit all state residents, but have some requirements for nonresidents.

Listed here are colleges whose programs of study are specialized; professional schools of art, music, nursing, and other disciplines. In general, the admissions requirements are not based primarily on academic criteria, but on evidence of talent or special interest in the field. Many other colleges and universities offer special-interest programs in addition to regular academic curricula, but such institutions have been given a regular competitive rating based on academic criteria. Schools oriented toward working adults have also been assigned this rating.

This report presents original research from four primary data sources: institution and student-level data from the Department of Education; student-level data from the Common Application; and student-level data on Cooke Scholars maintained by the Cooke Foundation. All analyses of Cooke Scholar data used the classifications. Appendix A provides more detail on the categories. A Title IV institution is a postsecondary institution authorized to enroll students receiving Title IV federal financial aid e.

For institutional characteristics that cannot be aggregated across Title IV campuses e. New Brunswick holds the Program Participation Agreement. Air Force Academy; U. Coast Guard Academy; U. Naval Academy; U. Military Academy; U. Merchant Marine Academy. Student-level data were derived from the Education Longitudinal Study of ELS restricted use base year, follow-up wave 1, follow-up wave 2, follow-up wave 3, and college transcript data.

These data were used to examine the postsecondary access and success of high-achieving, low-income students who were in Grade 10 in Students not part of the initial survey were excluded from our analyses, as were students who did not complete high school, and students for which the date of high school completion is unknown. Students for which no transcripts were received were also removed from the analyses.

Whenever possible the analyses were conducted using transcript data not survey data. We grouped students into quartiles on their 10th grade standardized test score for a composite of math and reading testing. Analyses utilized probability weights to produce results that were representative of the population. The weight variable used varied depending on the data sources used in the specific analysis. Data from the applications submitted by high-achieving students in the application year through the Common Application were analyzed to answer questions about use of fee waivers and frequency of early admissions.

High-achieving was defined as having reported a top decile score on the SAT critical reading and mathematics combined or the ACT composite. Our analyses use the latest transcript data file from the Education Longitudinal Survey, and confirm earlier versions of these analyses reported by Michael N. The Fifth Circuit announced its decision in favor of the University on July 15, Docket No. The Supreme Court held that the lower courts did not conduct a sufficient strict scrutiny examination in this case. Michael N. Likewise, among the 35 Coalition on Financing Higher Education COFHE schools, all of which are highly selective liberal arts colleges or universities, students from the bottom 40 percent of income distribution in the United States make up only ten percent of the enrolled student body.

Catharine B. Hill, Gordon C.

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Louis, Wellesley, Wesleyan, Williams, and Yale. Three of these schools did not participate in the research study. Also, Zachary A. Hill and Gordon C. Anthony P. Carnevale and Stephen J. Kahlenberg Washington, D. Frank and Philip J. Cook, The winner-take-all society: how more and more Americans compete for ever fewer and bigger prizes, encouraging economic waste, income inequality, and an impoverished cultural life New York, NY: Free Press, Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, , p. Bowen, Martin A. Kurzweil, and Eugene M.

High-achieving defined as having reported a top decile score on the SAT critical reading and mathematics combined or the ACT composite. Stephan and James E. Confirmed by author conversation with Yale admissions officer James Kim, October 16, Kobrin and Rochelle S. Bowen, Matthew M. Chingos, and Michael S. Belasco, Kelly O. Rosinger, and James C. Analysis examined all applications submitted in by high-achieving students.

Students were considered high-achieving if they reported an SAT out of a possible combined math and verbal or ACT Composite score at the 90th percentile or above. Income predictions provided by Experian Data Quality. Shulman and William G.