It was also planned to allow the United States to compete globally with the United Kingdom and Germany. Schwab and others claimed that U. Steel's size would allow the company to be more aggressive and effective in pursuing distant international markets "globalization".source
J. P. Morgan
Steel was regarded as a monopoly by critics, as the business was attempting to dominate not only steel but also the construction of bridges, ships, railroad cars and rails, wire, nails, and a host of other products. With U. Steel, Morgan had captured two-thirds of the steel market, and Schwab was confident that the company would soon hold a 75 percent market share.
However, after the business' market share dropped. Schwab resigned from U.
Steel in to form Bethlehem Steel, which became the second largest U. Labor policy was a contentious issue. Steel was non-union, and experienced steel producers, led by Schwab, wanted to keep it that way with the use of aggressive tactics to identify and root out pro-union "troublemakers. The bankers' views generally prevailed, and the result was a "paternalistic" labor policy. Steel was eventually unionized in the late s. The Panic of was a financial crisis that almost crippled the American economy.
Major New York banks were on the verge of bankruptcy and there was no mechanism to rescue them, until Morgan stepped in to help resolve the crisis. Treasury Secretary George B. Morgan then met with the nation's leading financiers in his New York mansion, where he forced them to devise a plan to meet the crisis. James Stillman, president of the National City Bank, also played a central role.
Morgan organized a team of bank and trust executives which redirected money between banks, secured further international lines of credit, and bought up the plummeting stocks of healthy corporations. A delicate political issue arose regarding the brokerage firm of Moore and Schley, which was deeply involved in a speculative pool in the stock of the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company. The banks had called the loans, and the firm could not pay.
If Moore and Schley should fail, a hundred more failures would follow and then all Wall Street might go to pieces. Morgan decided they had to save Moore and Schley. TCI was one of the chief competitors of U.
Steel and it owned valuable iron and coal deposits. Morgan controlled U. Elbert Gary, head of U. Steel, agreed, but was concerned there would be antitrust implications that could cause grave trouble for U. Steel, which was already dominant in the steel industry. Morgan sent Gary to see President Theodore Roosevelt, who promised legal immunity for the deal. The announcement had an immediate effect; by November 7, , the panic was over.
The crisis underscored the need for a powerful oversight mechanism. Vowing to never let it happen again, and realizing that in a future crisis there was unlikely to be another Morgan, in banking and political leaders, led by Senator Nelson Aldrich, devised a plan that resulted in the creation of the Federal Reserve System in While conservatives in the Progressive Era hailed Morgan for his civic responsibility, his strengthening of the national economy, and his devotion to the arts and religion, the left wing viewed him as one of the central figures in the system it rejected.
Morgan redefined conservatism in terms of financial prowess coupled with strong commitments to religion and high culture. Enemies of banking attacked Morgan for the terms of his loan of gold to the federal government in the crisis and, together with writer Upton Sinclair, they attacked him for the financial resolution of the Panic of The committee ultimately concluded that a small number of financial leaders was exercising considerable control over many industries.
The partners of J. Supreme Court Justice, compared to the value of all the property in the twenty-two states west of the Mississippi River. In , the inventor Nikola Tesla convinced Morgan he could build a trans-Atlantic wireless communication system eventually sited at Wardenclyffe that would outperform the short range radio wave based wireless telegraph system then being demonstrated by Guglielmo Marconi.
Almost as soon as the contract was signed Tesla decided to scale up the facility to include his ideas of terrestrial wireless power transmission to make what he thought was a more competitive system. Morgan considered Tesla's changes, and requests for the additional amounts of money to build it, a breach of contract and refused to fund the changes.
With no additional investment capital available the project at Wardenclyffe was abandoned in , never to become operational. Morgan suffered a rare business defeat in when he attempted to enter the London Underground field. Transit magnate Charles Tyson Yerkes thwarted Morgan's effort to obtain parliamentary authority to build the Piccadilly, City and North East London Railway, a subway line that would have competed with "Tube" lines controlled by Yerkes.
Morgan called Yerkes' coup "the greatest rascality and conspiracy I ever heard of". In , J. IMMC was a holding company that controlled subsidiary corporations that had their own operating subsidiaries. Morgan hoped to dominate transatlantic shipping through interlocking directorates and contractual arrangements with the railroads, but that proved impossible because of the unscheduled nature of sea transport, American antitrust legislation, and an agreement with the British government.
The ship's famous sinking in , the year before Morgan's death, was a financial disaster for IMMC, which was forced to apply for bankruptcy protection in Analysis of financial records shows that IMMC was over-leveraged and suffered from inadequate cash flow causing it to default on bond interest payments. Morgan corporations From —, 42 major corporations were organized or their securities were underwritten, in whole or part, by J.
Morgan and Company. Later years J. Morgan, photographed by Edward Steichen in After the death of his father in , Morgan gained control of J. Morgan began conversations with Charles M. The deal was closed without lawyers and without a written contract. News of the industrial consolidation arrived to newspapers in mid-January In , Morgan married Amelia Sturges, a.
Mimi — She died the following year. They had four children:. Morgan often had a tremendous physical effect on people; one man said that a visit from Morgan left him feeling "as if a gale had blown through the house. He was known to dislike publicity and hated being photographed; as a result of his self-consciousness of his rosacea, all of his professional portraits were retouched. His deformed nose was due to a disease called rhinophyma, which can result from rosacea. As the deformity worsens, pits, nodules, fissures, lobulations, and pedunculation contort the nose.
This condition inspired the crude taunt "Johnny Morgan's nasal organ has a purple hue. Satterlee, has speculated that he did not seek surgery for his nose because he feared the seizures would return. His social and professional self-confidence were too well established to be undermined by this affliction. It appeared as if he dared people to meet him squarely and not shrink from the sight, asserting the force of his character over the ugliness of his face.
Morgan: American Financier by Jean Strouse
Morgan smoked dozens of cigars per day and favored large Havana cigars dubbed Hercules' Clubs by observers. Morgan was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church, and by was one of its most influential leaders. It became the first electrically lit private residence in New York.
It was there that a reception of 1, people was held for the marriage of Juliet Morgan and William Pierson Hamilton on April 12, , where they were given a favorite clock of Morgan's. An avid yachtsman, Morgan owned several large yachts. The well-known quote, "If you have to ask the price, you can't afford it" is commonly attributed to Morgan in response to a question about the cost of maintaining a yacht, although the story is unconfirmed. A similarly unconfirmed legend attributes the quote to his son, J.
Morgan Jr. In response to the sinking of Titanic , Morgan purportedly said, "Monetary losses amount to nothing in life. It is the loss of life that counts. It is that frightful death. Morgan was a notable collector of books, pictures, paintings, clocks and other art objects, many loaned or given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art of which he was president and was a major force in its establishment , and many housed in his London house and in his private library on 36th Street, near Madison Avenue in New York City.
Volume 20 , Issue 6. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Managerial and Decision Economics Volume 20, Issue 6.
- Morgan: American Financier?
- J. P. Morgan - Wikiquote?
- J.P. Morgan: Early Years and Family.
- Travels in a Europe Restored: 1989-1995.
- Books You May Like.
- Paolo Sarpi: Between Renaissance and Enlightenment.
William F. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Volume 20 , Issue 6 September Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer.